March 2021 Vol. 2

PCN – Communicating News In Protective Coatings Globally in Real-Time

Leading Source of Industry News on Protective Coatings for Oil & Gas, Pipelines, Marine and Construction

NEWSMAKERS:  * Akzo Nobel * AWWA * Carboline * CUI * ExcelPlas * Failure Analysis * Graphene * Hempel * International Paints * LNG * NACE * PCN * PPG * Sherwin Williams


Sherwin Williams COO & President Resigns


Hempel Grew its Revenue to €1,542 million in 2020 Demonstrating Strong Organic Growth of 3.2 percent Despite a Declining Global Coatings Market

Akzo Nobel’s Automated Printing Head Will Change How Protective Coatings are Applied

Akzo Nobel Introduces Intertherm 2205 a New Epoxy Phenolic that Can be Applied to Hot Pipework Up to 143 deg.C and Cures in 10 Minutes

Episode 174 – AWWA C210: Liquid/Epoxy Coatings and Linings for Steel Water Pipe and Fittings


A Critical Review on the Production and Application of Graphene and Graphene-Based Materials in Anti-Corrosion Coatings

Field and Laboratory Assessment of Electrochemical Probes for Visualizing Localized Corrosion Under Buried Pipeline Conditions

Comparative Study of Corrosion Properties of Different Graphene Nanoplate/Epoxy Composite Coatings for Enhanced Surface Barrier Protection

Enhancement of Barrier and Corrosion Protection Performance of an Epoxy Coating Amino-Functionalized Graphene Oxide

Functionalized Graphene Oxide: Carrier for Corrosion Inhibitor and Barrier in Waterborne Epoxy Coatings

Graphene Epoxy Coating for Improving Corrosion Resistance and Frictional Properties of Steel

A Focused Review on Smart Coatings Tailored for Corrosion Protection: Developments, Applications, and Challenges

Passivation of Carbon Steel Using Intelligent Epoxy Paint


15 of the Most Common Causes of Failure of Protective Coatings & the Type of Failure (from ExcelPlas 25 Years of Experience)

  1. Inadequate blasting and insufficient removal of mill scale from the steel leading to poor adhesion
  2. Use of blasting grit with soluble salt contamination leading to osmotic blistering and under film corrosion
  3. Oil contaminated compressed air used for blasting leading to surface contamination leading to poor adhesion and delamination of the coating
  4. Inadequate blast profile i.e. shallow valleys leading to poor adhesion
  5. Excessive blast profile i.e. high peaks leading to poor steel coverage and risk of rust-rash corrosion, particularly for low DFT coatings.
  6. Excessive delay between blasting and coating causing flash corrosion contamination leading to poor adhesion and corrosion cells
  7. Addition of too much thinner that increases the potential for porosity and pinholes in the coating. There is also an increased propensity for the formation of Bernard Cells where there are boundaries of resin rich coating, resulting in “crows feet” cracking.
  8. Poor mix ratio of the epoxy with the hardener leading to incomplete cure
  9. Inadequate mixing/stirring of the coating before application leading to poor distribution of barrier pigments leading to coating cracks and premature corrosion
  10. Inadequate coating specification: lack of suitable topcoat for UV sensitive epoxies leading to chalking and UV breakdown
  11. Inadequate curing of coatings leading to less than optimal properties of the coating with increased moisture penetration and formation of corrosion cells
  12. Incompatibility of coating if different paint systems are used multicoat application leading to delamination/peeling
  13. Poor QA leading to inadequate control of coating thickness (e.g. excessive DFT) leading to cracking of the coating due to residual stresses
  14. Poor QA leading to inadequate control of coating thickness: low coating thickness or missing coats can lead to poor barrier performance and premature corrosion
  15. Exceeding the recoat window leading to delamination of topcoat from primer coat due to blast-dust contamination or lack of interfacial adhesion.

Critical Questions for Protective Coatings for Asset Protection in Oil & Gas, LNG:

  • Why is the coating not stopping corrosion?
  • Why is the coating delaminating or blistering?
  • Has the coating been correctly specified / applied?
  • Does the coating meet the manufacturing standard, including properties such as correct hardness/cure, adhesion and thickness?
  • What surface preparation and atmospheric conditions must be achieved to successfully apply the coating?
  • Does the coating have any defects in it? How will these affect performance?
  • Why did the coating fail? Root cause assessment.
  • How can the coating be successfully repaired/remediated so that it doesn’t fail again?

ExcelPlas Labs can answer these questions

Condition Assessment of Protective Coatings – Coating Inspection & Damage Assessment
ExcelPlas Labs have been serving the gas, oil and water industries for the past 20 years within Australia, New Zealand and Oceania. The company is a major testing provider to the pipeline and LNG industry.  Whether you’re an engineer, consultant, pipeline owner, pipeline operator, LNG facility or construction company, ExcelPlas Labs can conduct a range of analytical testing on protective coatings to assess their condition, integrity and durability.  ExcelPlas Labs have extensive in-house coatings testing equipment such as DSC, FTIR, TGA, TMA, EIS, SOM, XRD, QUV etc.

ExcelPlas Coating Labs – The Leaders in Evaluation and Assessment of Protective Coatings 
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful and sensitive tool to detect the condition of a coated metal.  This technique can generate quantitative data relating to the quality of a barrier coating and the plot of data can be used to indicate the status of coating long before any visible damage occurs.  EIS can also be used as a post-evaluation tool to indicate the barrier property or any change in the coating after the test exposure, such as QUV exposure, Autoclave test, Atlas Cell test, Salt Fog or Immersion test, etc.  Examination of the cross section for porosity/voids in the coating vis optical microscopy.  High levels of porosity can lead to internal weakness and stress cracking (can also obtain film thickness at the same time, SEM/EDXA of the underside to look for potential contamination such as chlorides, DSC to determine Tg and residual exotherm of cure, IR for positive material identification with comparison to reference authentic material, Nitrogen Analysis for base to hardener Mix ratio.


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This newsletter is brought to you by ExcelPlas Coating Labs (

ExcelPlas Labs provides independent testing, analysis and investigation on protective coatings to prevent corrosion.

ExcelPlas has extensive analytical capabilities for testing of Protective Coatings and Insulation Consulting for major oil and gas companies.

We conduct corrosion surveys, coating sampling, coating analysis and testing to ensure coating specifications for a wide range of onshore and offshore clients in Australia and the Asia-Pacific Region.

ExcelPlas Labs offer a full range of coating testing and analytical services to Australia’s mining, oil, gas and infrastructure sectors.

Forensic analysis for undertaking various coating based failure investigations and problem solving.

ExcelPlas Undertakes Analysis & Testing of Polymer Coating Systems including:
• Epoxy Protective Coatings
• Epoxy-Phenolic Protective Coatings
• Fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) 
• Dual-Layer Fusion bonded epoxy (DLFBE)
• Liquid applied epoxy (LAE)
• Abrasion resistant overcoat (ARO)
• Three-layer PE (3LPE)
• Multi-component liquid spray  (MCL)
• Heat shrink sleeves (HSS)

Testing on Coatings that ExcelPlas can Undertake includes:
• Coating identification by Infra-red Analysis (FTIR)
• Degree of Cure by Thermal Analysis (DSC)
• Coating Filler Identification by X-ray Analysis (EDS/XRD)
• Coating Microstructure by Embedding, Polishing and Optical Microscopy (OM)
• Coating Thermal Stability and Composition by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

DSC – Phase transition/volatiles / Tg / degree of cure/characterisation
TGA – Volatile compounds, inorganic mass % mix ratio
Element mapping for chlorides on paint flakes
Microscopy -Count layers and thickness of layers
-Assess porosity and voids
-Check distribution and orientation of filler particles

Condition monitoring and analysis of corrosion prevention coatings (epoxies, epoxy-phenolics)

Testing of Epoxy Coatings (LAE, FJC, FBE), heat shrink sleeves and tapes, barrier tapes and meshes.

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